COKELESS CUPOLA FURNACE PDF

Autotherm Equipments Corporation is well known manufacturer,exporter and supplier of Cokeless Cupola Furnaces at market leading price from Coimbatore,, . EcoMelt Cokeless Melting Furnace is a Vertical Shaft Melting furnace and was as a melting unit for Cast iron without use of coke as in a conventional cupola. The development of the cokeless cupola began in the United Kingdom at the foundry of Hayes Shell Cast Limited in the mid s. A pilot furnace was built.

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Although the price of coke, fuel and electric rates may vary from location to location, it is clear that the cokeless system can offer considerable economic benefits, with duplexing operation offering the highest saving.

This is the purpose of the addition of limestone to the charge in the furnace; the limestone acts as a flux to absorb all these unwanted furnacee and form a slag which can be easily removed from the furnace and coke,ess outside. The SPM level, as measured in actual installations, is less than one third the allowable limits. It acts as a source of heat In the bed it superheats the iron as it trickles over the coke It acts as a source of carbon In the Cokeless Melting Furnace these functions are provided by three different means: The combination had a similar rurnace to what had been used previously, i.

Therefore, this design can be used to produce iron with a low C-content, which is particularly interesting for cokelesss when it comes to the production of malleable cast iron. This just goes to show that the “obvious” way of increasing slag volume – shovelling on several more shovels of limestone than is needed for our cuppla method of operation results in excessive consumption of the spheres and subsequent decrease in the bed height and operational performance of the furnace.

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The most cokelesx aspect which highlights the invention is the use of refractory spheres in the cokeless cupola, as described in our British Patent Specification No. A special compensating siphon is used to adjust the slag bath height according to the desired carburizationmaking it possible to change the dripping zone in the cupola seen from the siphon.

US5294243A – Method of operating cokeless cupola – Google Patents

There is no coke -related addition of sulfur. The first slag is only formed approx. Broadly speaking, therefore, the invention is based on an appreciation of the importance of slag control in the operation of a cokeless cupola furnace with the minimum of trouble, in particular without problems originating from a slag which is too viscous, yet at minimum cost, that is to say, low sphere consumption and low lining wear.

In particular where the lining of the furnace has a significant alumina content problems of excessive viscosity in the slag are almost certain unless steps are taken to adjust the composition of the flux dokeless, primarily by the addition of lime and magnesia, but where these are already at an acceptable level, cokelexs glass or gravel or other predominantly fuenace materials must be added; generally speaking a high alumina content, whether from the incoming charge, the furnace lining or the spheres, will cause a high viscosity high melting-point slag unless counteracted by the measures described.

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Each burner has its own gas, air and oxygen valves for precise regulation of burner performance. It is therefore very important to control the flux additions in order to obtain the correct consistency of the slag so that the furnace can operate smoothly, but at an economic cost. Running the furnace at low slag volumes makes the slag thick and can cause blockage of the slagging and tapping box. The whole question of fluxing agents is not so well understood, nor its importance appreciated, in cokeless cupolas.

High draw speed plate blank continuous casting low carbon steel crystallizer protective slag. It is obvious, therefore, that the required quantity and composition of the flux addition will vary for each operation of the cupola, the variables being the make-up of the charge, the type of lining, and the tapping temperature which will then govern the rate of consumption of the spheres.

A typical slag analysis would have a composition in the following range: This control may involve deliberately increasing the volume of slag by suitable additions in order to operate a continuously tapped furnace smoothly. It vokeless obvious, therefore, that the required quantity and composition of the flux addition will vary for each operation of the cupola, the variables being the make-up of the charge, the type of lining, and the tapping temperature which will then govern the rate of consumption of the spheres.

Thus, it is possible to express a defined combustion ratio eq. Fluorine-free environment-friendly type continuous casting protecting slag for the blast furnace slag containing titanium and the manufacturing process of the same. Slagging is considerably reduced compared to copulas using coke. Moreover in many instances the cokeless cupola is operated as a long-campaign furnace as this is a more energy-efficient method of operation than a series of short cokkeless and it forms fugnace important part of the way the furnace is used.

Trials coeless that iron of suitable temperature and composition could be tapped directly from the furnace without any superheating. Anyway in a coke-fired cupola the tapping temperature is higher, which means that if the slag composition is not quite right the extra temperature will still enable the slag to be removed quite easily.

Unit Melting The Cokeless Melting Furnace technology can be applied in the traditional manner as a unit melter when high temperature metal of the right composition is available directly from the cupola into ladles for pouring into moulds. This illustrates the need to keep the slag sufficiently fluid to enable it to flow through the bed properly.

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It cokelesss sometimes necessary to add further materials such as rurnace fluorspar which makes the slag more reactive gurnace the ash so that both better carbon cokelfss and better temperatures in the furnace can be obtained.

Some examples cu;ola now be described to illustrate durnace can happen when a cokeless cupola is not run in accordance with the invention. A carbon injection unit, therefore, will be required which continually blows carbon into the cupola during melting. If more limestone were to be added in a cokeless cupola to maintain fluidity it would increase greatly the rate of consumption of the spheres, increasing the overall running costs as well as shortening the length of melting run that is possible.

It can be extracted laterally from the furnace extraction below throat and thermally recovered.

The most important aspect which highlights the invention is the use of refractory spheres in the cokeless cupola, as described in our British Patent Specification No.

If the operators failed to clear the slag box at regular intervals the slag built up within the furnace to a point where it approached the area of the burners and was agitated into a foam which could rapidly increase in height and block the burners. A suitable recarburiser is continually injected into the well to give the correct carbon analysis. A method according to claim 11 wherein sufficient flux materials are added to the melt to keep the viscosity of the slag below a critical value at which point the slag tends to be held above the heat-exchange bodies and has difficulty in flowing through the bed.

This example shows, amongst other things, the importance of the slag having sufficient volume to flow during tapping, especially during continuous tapping.

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Moreover, in a cokeless cupola slag control is much more critical because of the lower temperatures. Fuel cost may vary from region to region, and also due to variation in design, furnace capacity and duration of melt campaign. Cold-blast operation is known to have difficulties reaching high spout iron temperatures, unless coke charge and blast volume are increased to the detriment of the melting rate see Cupola furnace network diagram.

We have to import coke from other countries. It is very difficult to take an analysis of the composition of the slag above the bed so the operator has to rely on the analysis of the slag after it has been removed from the furnace and after making certain assumptions regarding the amount of sand and dirt in the charge, as well as with regard to lining wear and rate of consumption of the spheres.