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Irony makes for a complex interpretation of the gaucho and may shed light on the difficulty that Sarmiento had in defining Facundo solely as barbaric and why Mansilla questioned his own civilization when interacting with gauchos and their way of life.

The rhetoric of gaucho stoicism germqn both the problem and the resolution to matters of national identity. They expressed the fears, stereotypes and desires of a few Argentines who were willing to create an Argentine imaginary—An imaginary in which some belonged and others did not.

Peronists lauded both federalism and the gaucho as sites of resistance against perceived alliances between liberalism, imperialism and global capitalism, and anti-Peronists labeled federal polity as barbaric. Peronism was viewed as a resurrection of Rosas-style nationalism.

Cabecita Negra (English, Spanish, Paperback)

A History of Argentina in the Twentieth Century. According to Colin Winston, Argentina in still maintained the vestiges of 19th century political ideologies alongside new political tendencies of socialism, communism and anarchism.

Daniel James describes eyewitnesses testifying to people dressing in gaucho attire and riding the streets on horseback The author parodies nationalist belief in finding an authentic origin on the Pampas.

Martyrdom becomes an important characteristic of Argentinity. The Invention of Argentina.

Eran sufridos, castos pobres. Through their loss, they become negrx with the city ccabecita with society. The gaucho was part of the national discourse and an essential piece of the national vocabulary.

Many writers and cultural critics revised historic accounts and recreated national personalities in order to promote autochthony and the gaucho continued to be a fundamental part of that dialogue. Ediciones de la flor, This border area is where conflict occurs between liberal modernization and rural conservatism. While Borges became more and more averse to historical revisionism and a strong critic of Lugones, both authors supported similar beliefs. The house may indeed be haunted by the spirit of Santos Vega or other gauchos looking for a place to stay in the city—a modernizing rural-to-urban sociocultural movement.


On the other, it critically implies a negative cueento political outcome through parody.

Borges and Bioy Casares write the story as a parody of the descamisados. Borges geographically stages Rivadavia Street, running through negta center of Buenos Aires, as a spatial divide between urban and rural landscapes.

Germán Rozenmacher

Peronism therefore is the centerpiece of discussion in this chapter as it maps onto gaucho rhetoric discussed in previous chapters. By metaphorically tying the civilization or barbarism dichotomy in a knot with no ends—a snake eating its own tail—authors like Borges showed that there was a complexity to sociocultural production that goes beyond a simple black and white comparison.

Brett Levinson brilliantly suggests that the story can be read as a political, social, economic, literary and cultural invasion.

The brother even references certain knitting projects she was working on to chronologically mark invasion of the home. Therefore, the gaucho can represent varying social and political ideologies while maintaining a spatially national reference point. The second was the written law upheld by the government and written down.

Central to their debate is the idea that the urban working class was divided into two separate groups, a new and old working class and that either one or the other was responsible for the October 17th demonstration James The inclusion of the gaucho in the discourse surrounding Peronism is not limited to supporting the cause.

The gaucho, and the indigenous people before him, faced similar persecution, displacement and cleansing. These songs demonstrate reverence for the cultural icon and his continued national influence at the popular level Carretero As though referencing the same south as the short story by the same name, Borges rejects the idea of a common, pure origin. Help Center Find new research papers in: However, one side of the street is indiscernible from the other. Gestures of compadrito cultural participation through music—the tango, popular literature and story telling—all add to the cultural discourse surrounding Peronism.


The exchange between the old, silent gaucho and Juan Dahlmann seal his fate to die in the street at the hands of the compadritos.

Germán Rozenmacher ( of La Argentina en pedazos)

cabefita No matter which gaucho was present, he becomes a symbol of what Rosas-style nationalism can offer to twentieth century Argentina. Walsh is critical of conservative military rule and documents how he perceived the government usurped, hid and tried to erase cultural symbols of national popular movements. These two short stories provide a response to both literary and social traditions.

Liberalism and nationalism overlooked rural migrant and urban immigrant groups and left a large portion of the Argentine working class ignored as non-participants in the political process. In the second, the silent gaucho jegra off the knife to another to participate in the duel. Indiana University Press, Rodolfo Walsh is another example of an author who at first did not support Peronism, yet by Walsh was a member of the revolutionary movement called the montoneros, a clear inscription of the early gaucho moniker and a pro-Peronist egrman.

These works represent a sampling of Argentine literary discourse fomenting the use of the gaucho as a rhetorical device employed by ciento political projects in their effort to assign meaning to social conflict in the 20th century. Borges beautifully creates a narrative that parodies nationalism and offers criticism of what he believes will be the product of such politics.